Anatomy of The Brain

Our brains contains many structures that have multiple functions. Below is a list of some of the major structures and their functions. The upper part of the central nervous system consists of the brain stem, the cerebellum and the cerebrum, ensuring control of the entire body. Structure – cerebrum occupies the skull and contains three elements: (1) brainstem that prolongs spinal cord, located in the spinal column, comprising, from bottom up, medulla oblongata, cerebral peduncle and annular bulge, (2) cerebellum or hindbrain is a rounded mass located behind the brainstem and (3) cerebral hemispheres .

Brain works, along with the spinal cord, the central nervous system to the body through the peripheral nervous system nerves. White matter connects from one point to another in the forebrain and between forebrain and spinal. Gray matter ensure receipt of information, analytics and development responses (muscle contractions, for example). Each has specific functions of the forebrain, whose complexity increases with the height of its location. The brainstem contains control centers of the heart and respiration, body movements harmonizes hindbrain, diencephalon allows sorting of the information sensory (thalamus) and upper control hormones and viscera (hypothalamus) hemispheres are responsible for conscious sensation of voluntary motility and higher functions (intellectual faculties, emotions, complex behaviors.

Anyway, let’s skip this part ant let’s talk more detailed about anatomy of the brain.

1. Basal ganglia

Basal ganglia are involved in thinking and voluntary movements. Diseases involving damage to these regions are Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease

Functions of basal ganglia:
– Thought control
– Coordination of movement
– Voluntary movements

Location – basal ganglia are located deep in the cerebral hemispheres in the brain telencefalica region. Consist of the striatum, subthalamic nuclei and black substance.

2. Brainstem and Broca areabrain-anatomy

Brainstem transmit information from peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the upper parts of the brain. It consists of bridge, medulla oblongata and midbrain.

Functions of Brainstem:
– Alert status
– Awakening
– Breathing
– Blood pressure
– Contains most of the cranial nerves
– Digest
– Heart rate
– Other autonomic functions
– Transmit information received by peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the upper parts of the brain.

Location – brainstem is located at the meeting of the cerebellum and spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata and deck.

3. Broca’s area – expressive language and speech reception.

Functions of Broca area:
– Controlling facial neurons
– Controls the production of speech
– Plays a role in language comprehension

Location – Broca’s area is located in the left frontal lobe, around the opercular and triangular regions of the inferior frontal gyrus.

4. Rolando central sulcus and cerebellum

Rolando central sulcus is a deep groove that separates the frontal and parietal lobes.

Functions of Rolando central sulcus

– central sulcus is a region of separation between the frontal and parietal lobes.

Cerebellum – controls coordination of movement and plays a role in maintaining the balance

Functions of cerebellum:
– Controls coordination of fine movements
– Balance
– Muscle tone

Location – cerebellum is located above the brainstem at the base of the skull in the occipital lobes.

5. The cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the outer portion of the brain (thickness of 1.5 to 5 mm), which receives and processes sensory information and is divided into the cerebral lobes

Functions of the cerebral cortex:
– Determine intelligence
– Determine personality
– Role in the interpretation of sensory impulses
– Operation of motor
– Planning and organizing
– Tactile sensations

Location – is the outer layer of the cerebral cortex of the brain. It is divided into several lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. The island is also found in this region of the brain.

Lobes of the cerebral cortex

  • Frontal lobes – involved in decision making, problem solving and planning
  • Occipital lobe – involved in vision and color recognition
  • Parietal Lobe – receive and process sensory information
  • Temporal lobe – involved in response emorional, memory and speech.

1. The frontal lobes

Functions of the frontal lobes:
– Motor function
– Higher functions
– Planning
– Thinking
– Reason
– Impulse control
– Memory
Location – the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex is the anterior portion

2. Occipital lobes

Functions of the occipital lobes:
– Control of vision
– Recognition of colors
Location – The portion posterior occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex.

3. Parietal lobes

Functions of parietal lobes:
– Thinking
– Information Processing
– Sensations of pain and tactile
– Spatial orientation
– Speech
– Visual perception
Location – parietal lobes are located superior to the occipital lobes and posterior central sulcus and frontal lobes Rolando.

4. Temporal lobes

Functionsf temporal lobes:
– Emotional response
– Hearing;
– Memory
– Speech
Location – previously found temporal lobes and occipital lobes lateral sulcus Sylvius.

Cranial Nerves

There are 12 pairs of nerves originating from the brain out of the skull and serve the head, neck and trunk.

Cranial nerve function
– Directs sensory impulses from the body
– Chewing
– Balance
– Eye movements, to
– Facial sensations
– Hearing, phonation
– Breathing
– Salivation, swallowing
– Smell
– Taste

Location – cranial nerves optic, oculomotor and trochlear originate in the anterior portion of the brain. Cranial nerves trigeminal, abducens and facial starting at deck level. Vestibulocohlear nerve originates in the ear and go up the bridge. Nerves glossofaringian vaguely affordable and hypoglossal are attached medulla oblongata.

Limbic system structures

  • Amygdala – is involved in emotional response, hormonal secretions and memory
  • Cingulate gyrus – a fold of the brain involved in sensory impulses and regulate emotions related to aggressive behavior.
  • Fornix – is a fibrous band of nerve fibers in an arc that connects the hippocampus and hypothalamus
  • Hippocampus – sends information to the nearest part of the cerebral hemispheres for long-term storage and withdraw them when necessary.
  • Hypothalamus – directs a multitude of important functions such as body temperature, hunger and homeostasis
  • Cortex – receives sensory information from the olfactory bulb and is involved in identifying odors
  • Thalamus – is a mass of gray matter that directs and receives sensory signals to and from the spinal cord and cerebellum.

The limbic system

Function of limbic systems:
– Control of emotions
– Emotional responses
– Hormonal secretions
– Available
– Motivation
– Sensations of pain and pleasure


Function if amygdala:
– Awakening
– Control of autonomous respunsurilor associated with fear
– Emotional responses
– Hormonal secretions
Location – the amygdala is a mass almond shaped nuclei located deep in the temporal lobe, medial hypothalamus and adjacent to the hippocampus.

The cingulate gyrus and Fornix

Cingulate gyrus

Functions of cingulate gyrus:
– Coordination of sensory impulses associated emotions
– Emotional responses to pain
– Regulation of aggressive behavior
Location – gyrus is a “fold” of the brain. Cingulate gyrus is found superior to the corpus callosum, cingulate sulci and sulci between the corpus callosum.

Fornix site

Functions – making the connection between the hippocampus and hypothalamus.
Location – fornix is ​​a band of nerve fibers in an arc that connects the hippocampus and corpus mamilari from the hypothalamus, thalamus, forming an arch over.
Hippocampus and hypothalamus


Functions of Hippocampus:
– Consolidation of new memories
– Emotions
– Navigation
– Spatial orientation
Location – hippocampus is a band of nerve fibers located between the shape of a horseshoe and temporal lobes near the amygdala.


Functions of Hypothalamus:
– Control of autonomic functions
– Control of emotions
– Endocrine functions
– Homeostasis
– Motor function
– Regulates the intake of food and water
– Adjusts the sleep wake cycle
Location – is found in the thalamus and hypothalamus posterior optic chiasm.

Olfactory cortex and thalamus
Olfactory cortex

Functions of Olfactory Cortex:
– Awareness of odors
– Identify odors
– Receives sensory information from the olfactory bulb
Location – olfactory cortex is located in the median region of the temporal lobe


Functions of Thalamus:
– Motor control
– Receives auditory signals, somatosensory and visual
– Transmit sensory signals to the cerebral cortex
Location – thalamus is a large mass of gray matter located inside telencefalului above the hypothalamus.

Medulla oblongata and meninges

Medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem that helps control autonomic functions.

Functions of Medulla oblongata :
– Controls autonomic functions
– Transmit nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord
Location – medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. Bridge is found inferior to the anterior cerebellum.

Meninges are membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord

Functions of Meninges

– protects the brain, cranial nerves and spinal cord

Location – meninges are membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. Meninges consist of pia mater, dura mater and arachnoid.

Olfactory bulb and pineal gland

Olfactory bulb is the final part of the olfactory lobe and is involved in sense of smell

– Transmit sensory signals to the olfactory tract
– Involved in sense of smell
Location – olfactory bulb is located in the limbic region of the brain.
The pineal gland is involved in biological rhythms endocrine gland that secretes the hormone melatonin

– Cause sleepiness
– Turn signals in the nervous system endocrine signals
– Regulating endocrine
– Secretes the hormone melatonin
Location – pineal gland is attached to the posterior wall of the third ventricle.

The pituitary gland (pituitary) and Punta

Pituitary endocrine gland is involved in homeostasis that regulates the functioning of other endocrine glands

– Produces growth hormone
– Produce hormones which act on other endocrine glands
– Produces hormones that act on the muscles and kidneys
– Regulating endocrine
– Stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus
Location – The pituitary gland is located at the base hipotalamususlui.

Bridge – transmit sensory information between forebrain and cerebellum

– Waking state
– Plays a role in controlling autonomic functions
– Transmit sensory information between forebrain and cerebellum.
– Regulates sleep
Location – deck is situated above the brainstem portion of medulla oblongata.

Reticular formation and black substance

Reticular formation is localized in nerve fibers within the brain stem that regulates sleep and waking state

– Waking state
– Beware
– Cardiac reflexes
– Motor functions
– Adjusts conscious
– Transmit nerve signals to the cerebral cortex
– Sleep
Location – reticular formation is a group of nerve fibers located within the brain stem.

Black substance helps control voluntary movements and regulate mood

– Controls voluntary movements
– Produce the neurotransmitter dopamine
– Regulates mood
Location – black substance is located in the midbrain, being a part of the basal ganglia.

Tectum and tegmental

Tectum is the dorsal region of the midbrain.
Functions – controls auditory and visual responses
Location – ese tectum located in the dorsal portion of the midbrain. Receptor consists of visual and auditory receptors.

Ventral portion of the midbrain tegmentum

– Controls motor functions
– Regulates consciousness and attention
– Regulates certain autonomous functions
Location – tegmentum is located in the ventral portion of the midbrain. It consists of several formations of which the most important are the reticular formation, substantia nigra and red nuclei.

The ventricular

The system connects ventricular internal cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid creirului:
– Aqueduct of Sylvius – channel located between the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle
– Choroid plexus – cerebrospinal fluid production
– Ventricle four – channel located between the bridge, medulla oblongata and cerebellum
– Lateral ventricles – the largest ventricles located in both cerebral hemispheres
– Third ventricle – provides a path for cerebrospinal fluid circulation.

Aqueduct of Sylvius

Functions – connects the third ventricle and fourth ventricle.
Location – aqueduct of Sylvius is a channel located between the third and fourth ventricle. Contains cerebrospinal fluid.

Choroid plexus
Functions – produce a cerebrospinal fluid and will form the barrier between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid
Location – choroid plexus are located behind the bridge and the medulla oblongata.

Fourth ventricle
Functions – forms the central canal of the spinal cord and protects the brain from injury
Location – fourth ventricle is a diamond-shaped cavity located in SPTE deck and medulla oblongata.

Lateral ventricles
Functions – protects the brain from injury and provides a path for cerebrospinal fluid circulation
Location – two lateral ventricles are cavities located in intriorul curve shape encephalitis.

Third ventricle
Functions – protects the brain from injury and provides a path for cerebrospinal fluid circulation
Location – The third ventricle is a narrow cavity located between the two cerebral hemispheres of the diencephalon.

Wernicke area

Wernicke’s area is a region of the brain where the spoken language is understood. Neurologist Carl Wernicke etse considered the discoverer of this portion of the brain functions.

Wernike area functions are:
– Understanding language
– Semantic processing
– Speech Recognition
– Language interpretation
Location – Wernike area is located in the left temporal lobe, posterior to the primary auditory complex.

2 Comments to “Anatomy of The Brain”

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