Name the lobes of the brain

The human brain is an astounding machinery designed almost perfectly. The biggest part of the brain, the telencephalon or the cerebrum, is divided in 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. Some anatomists say that the cerebrum has in fact 6 lobes (they also consider the limbic lobe and the insular cortex), but in the common acceptance we say that the human brain has only four lobes.

Let’s name the lobes of the brain:

The frontal lobe is located in the frontal part of the both hemispheres and it is the biggest lobe of them all. . Its retro-posterior limits are the central sulcus (next to the temporal lobe) and the Sylvian sulcus. What’s really special about this part of the brain is that it has lots of dopamine-sensitive brain cells/neurons and therefore is associated with motivation, memory (only the short term one), attention and in general, with all the higher level cognitive processes. If it is damaged, then mood shifts may occur.The Lobes of The brain

The parietal lobe is located above the temporal lobe (separated by the sylvian fissure) and to the right of the frontal lobe (separated by the central sulcus). It is responsible for receiving and processing all the sensorial information (especially the movement and space related information), but also for language processing and for the sense of touch (it processes tactile information such as any level of pressure, pain or even touch).

 

The occipital lobe is responsible for processing the visual information. It’s located to the right of both of the parietal lobe and temporal lobe and it’s the smallest of all the brain lobes. Unlike the other ones, the occipital lobe is not separated by any internal structure, but rather by the occipital bone. Functionally speaking, it has the primary visual cortex, where optic information arrives from the lateral geniculate bodies. If somehow this lobe is affected by physical shocks, people might have problems with recognizing objects and colors or even have hallucinations.

Last but not least, the temporal lobe is located in the inferior parts of both of the hemispheres. It’s the single lobe linked to the other 3 ones and it’s responsible for processing memories, emotions, sensorial input and language. It contains the primary auditory cortex, therefore it’s responsible for processing the sounds and especially the words. As well, the temporal lobe has within the hippocampus, the defining formation for the limbic system associated with learning and emotion, fact that explains why the temporal lobe plays a major role in forming new and long-lasting memories. If this area is damaged, people might lose their memory and might even have trouble with word pronunciation.

Before ending this article, it’s important to mention one more thing: both of the hemispheres have the above mentioned lobe. However, because they are similar and work in pairs, they are commonly referred as being a single lobe.

Leave a Reply