The cerebrum in mammals is also called the telencephalon and comprises the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, the olfactory bulb and some other brain structures. The biggest part of the cerebrum consists of the two hemispheres (each of them having/being divided into 4 lobes). The hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum, a thick nerve structure that makes possible communication between the hemispheres. The outer structure that covers the cerebrum function is called the cerebral cortex, known also as the gray matter.
In terms of size, of all the mammals, the human cerebrum is the biggest. Normally, it’s implicated in all the sensitive and motor processes, especially in things like movement, sensory processing, olfactory senses, languages and speech (especially in the left hemisphere) and, obviously, in learning and long term memorizing. As well, other processes in which the telencephalon is implicated in are thinking, perceiving the exterior, touch-related processes and even in planning and organization.
Movement/motor functions of cerebrum
Simple body movements, whether we refer to walking or just shaking hands are determined by the primary motor cortex, that is located in the frontal lobe. The neurons link the cortex to the brain stem and then to the spinal cord, innervating the skeletal muscles (but not only). If damage occurs within the area of the motor cortex, motor neuronal diseases might occur and people might lose their muscular tonus and power or even get different levels of paralysis.
Sensorial processing takes place in the primary sensory areas located in the cerebral cortex (where visual/auditory/gustatory/olfactory information is analyzed and sent over to the frontal lobe if necessary). Basically, due to this cerebrum function, we perceive the world around us as it is, with all its action taking place near us, with all its smells and its dangers.
In the human cerebrum, the olfactory bulb (responsible for analyzing smells) is located under the frontal lobe. The olfactory bulb is part of the limbic system asides structures like the hippocampus, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the fornix etc. From a certain point of view, the olfaction processing system is quite unique: the axons of olfactory bulb neurons connect to the olfactory cortex directly instead of linking to the thalamus first.
Cerebrum function of learning and memorizing
On of the most important cerebrum functions is the one that allows learning and memorizing the things around us. Memory, for example, is associated with the hippocampus, while memories and the ability of memorizing different information are linked to the basal ganglia.
Last but not least, the language and the communication skills are allowed by two complicated system in different parts of the left hemisphere (but not only). Speaking itself is linked to the Broca’s area located in the frontal lobe, while processing and understanding words and languages is linked to the Wernike’s area.
Without having such a developed cerebrum, life as we understand it would have never been possible. Luckily, the cerebrum/telencephalon, with all its functions, is sufficiently evolved for us to live a happy life.
The brain works by using a huge network of neural circuits or nerve cells. The comunication between neurons is both electrical and chemical and always travels from the dendrites of a neuron, the soma, the axon, the dendrites of another neuron. A neuron dendrites receive signals from other neurons through axons chemicals called neurotransmitters. Neuro-transmitters produce electrochemical charging in soma. Soma integrates information which is then transmitted electrochemically on the axon.
The science and the cerebrum function
Scientists have two directions in their study about cerebrum function. One direction is the study of cerebrum functions as a part of the brain was destroyed. Functions that disappear or are no longer normal after certain regions of the brain injury can often be associated with damaged areas. The second direction is to study cerebrum responses to direct stimulation or stimulation of certain sense organs. The neurons are grouped by their function in groups of cells called cores. These cores are connected to the engine and other systems sensors.
People can study cerebrum functions of pain and achievement, motor, olfactory, visual, auditory, and other systems that measure physiological changes (physical and chemical) that occur in the brain when the senses are activated. For example electroencephalogram (EEG) measures the electrical activity of certain groups of neurons by surface attach brain electrodes.The electrodes are inserted directly into the brain and can read the information provided by neurons. Changes in flow blood glucose, oxygen consumption in the group of active cells can also be observed.